1. The belief that there is nothing beyond nature/no supernatural
2. The belief that God may exist but cannot be known
1. The belief that there is a plurality of gods. Often it was closely tied to nature worship with either a hierarchy of "gods" or any god relegated to a position of being just one among a pantheon of "god's."
2. Hinduism, Zen Buddhism, Mormonism
1. God equals everything and everything equals God.
2. God is personal and immanent (close) but not transcendent (above and distinct from). Personal being is swallowed up in the one predominant “Over Soul.” Reality is pictured as an amorphous fusion of all matter and spirit.
3. Spinoza, Transcendentalists, Radhakrishnan, Hindus
1. God is finite and grows, as his creation changes and grows, in knowledge of it and in oneness with it. Through perfectly knowing the world, God includes the world within himself. Thus God is finite, distinct from the world, but inseparable from and interdependent with the world.
2. Diogenes, Alfred N. Whitehead, Schubert Ogden, John Cobb
1. God is personal and transcendent but not immanent. He is a sort of "remote control" God. (He "pushed a button" to create everything and now passively watches what happens.) Thus he does not get involved with his creation. He wound up the clock of creation at the beginning and then let it go to run on its own.
2. Voltaire, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Hobbes
1. Both God and the universe have eternally existed side-by-side. There are two ultimate forces in the universe - God and matter. Therefore there is eternal conflict between God and the evil aspects of the material universe. It is a kind of "Star Wars" philosophy.
2. Zoroaster, "Yang and Yin"
1. God is a personal being who is both transcendent and immanent. Thus creation is both distinct from God and dependent on God. God is independent of his creation, but is very much involved in saving, sustaining and ruling over it.